Teflon-coated pans and all PFOA analogs (including Genx) contain volatile chemicals which have displayed deadly toxicity to all avian species.[5,7,9]. It is a common rule of thumb to never cook with Teflon pans if one has a parrot or macaw pet in the same room or even house, as the volatile chemicals can fill the room and exhibit enough toxicity in enough of a concentration to kill a large bird. Studies [5] have shown that birds can serve as indicator species to possible human toxicity to PFOA’s and PFTE’s. What is acutely deadly to birds is likely highly chronically toxic to humans, Carcinogenic and xenoestrogenic effects are also notorious amongst these fluorochemicals. Fluoride in itself is highly toxic and competes for absorption with key essential minerals including magnesium. Dozens of studies referencing the toxicokinetic mechanisms of various fluorine compounds such as those used in the water supply, deodorant, toothpaste can be accessed through the hyperlinks. The EPA has released a technical fact sheet that explicitly states that chemicals like PFOS’s and PFOA’s bioaccumulate in humans and that they have been classified as a carcinogen by The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, IARC, and the WHO [18]. Even new ‘copper’ ‘ceramic’ non-stick pans are clearly not copper and contain a mixture of organosillicates, sometimes with copper mixed into the silicon non-stick finish which coats the metal (usually aluminum) pan. Such compounds include silica sol, MTMS, FAS and PDMS. MTMS is harmful if swallowed or inhaled [19]. FAS is also highly prone to oxidation and is widely classified as a hazardous substance. [22, 23, 24] Even PDMS has shown toxicity “PDMS has caused eye irritation in humans and laboratory animals. It was of low acute toxicity in laboratory animals by the oral, inhalation and dermal routes, and studies involving repeated administration failed to identify any particular sites for toxic attack.”[25]. 

  • Acute silicosis in teflon-coated pan manufacturing due to metal sandblasting
  • All cases had worked in the sandblasting unit at a Teflon-coated pan manufacturing factory for one to three years. Silicosis is a preventable occupational lung disease, but no effective treatment is available for the disease yet. 

1] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21905388/

  • Acute silicosis in teflon-coated pan manufacturing due to metal sandblasting
  • All cases had worked in the sandblasting unit at a Teflon-coated pan manufacturing factory for one to three years. Silicosis is a preventable occupational lung disease, but no effective treatment is available for the disease yet.

2] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13920272/

  • Hazards to health: Teflon

3] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/374230/

  • Tetrafluoroethylene and polytetrafluoroethylene

4] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31985480/ 

  • Toxic compounds in a cutlery microenterprise: A case study.
  • The toxic substances found in the SPM included halogenated hydrocarbons (containing chlorine, fluorine, and iodine) and aromatic hydrocarbons. The toxic substances included naphthalene, which is classified as carcinogenic.

5] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32532580/

  • Environmental Toxic Exposures Using Companion Animals as an Indicator of Human Toxicity: A Case Report and Discussion.
  • Companion animals, when similarly exposed to toxic substances as humans regarding route, dose, and chronicity often mount symptoms and signs in advance of humans. This phenomenon allows the clinician to identify occult exposure, test, and treat while human disease is mild or still subclinical.

6] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20326979/

  • Toxicity of Decomposition Products of “Teflon”

7] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15638009/ 

  • PTFE toxicity in birds

8] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32786555/ 

– Measurements of Gross α- and β-Activities of Archived PM 2.5 and PM 10 Teflon Filter Samples

  • The adverse effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) on human health have been well demonstrated, but the underlying properties responsible for its toxicity are still unclear.

9] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18406387/ 

  • Raptor toxicology
  • For raptors held in captivity, the list of toxic agents expands and includes toxic inhalants such as carbon monoxide and polytetrafluoroethylene.

10] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31938905/ 

  • Mechanisms of Pulmonary Toxicity of Perfluoro-n-Alkane Pyrolysis Products with Consideration of the Structural Features of the Blood-Air Barriers
  • It can be hypothesized that toxic effects of perfluoroisobutylene are determined by its influence on epithelial (pneumocytes and cells of nonkeratinized stratified ciliated epithelium) and endothelial cells. 

11] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20326927/

  • Toxicity of Decomposition Products of “Teflon”

12] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28913736/

  • PTFE-coated non-stick cookware and toxicity concerns: a perspective.
  • Due to toxicity concerns, PFOA has been replaced with other chemicals such as GenX, but these new alternatives are also suspected to have similar toxicity.

13] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084585/ 

  • Application of the Key Characteristics of Carcinogens to Per and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances
  • Evidence exists that multiple PFAS exhibit several of the key characteristics of carcinogens with each of 26 chemicals identified in our review exhibiting at least one characteristic, particularly receptor-mediated effects. Well-studied PFAS, including PFOA and PFAS, exhibit up to five key characteristics which can serve as research priorities for less-studied PFAS as well as sources of information for potential application of read-across approaches to unstudied endpoints for other PFAS class members.

14] https://factor.niehs.nih.gov/2020/1/science-highlights/pfoa-carcinogenicity/index.htm 

  • PFOA evaluated for cancer links by NTP expert panel 

15] https://monographs.iarc.who.int/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/mono110-01.pdf 

  • These studies have focused on cancers of the kidney, bladder, liver, pancreas, testes, prostate, thyroid, and breast because of initial findings from the epidemiological studies, or because of congruence with sites of toxicity identified in experimental studies in animals 

16] https://dceg.cancer.gov/research/what-we-study/pfas 

  • PFAS Exposure and Risk of Cancer
  • In 2017, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), the most well-studied per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS), as a possible human carcinogen based in part on limited epidemiologic evidence of associations with cancers of the kidney and testes.

17] https://www.law.com/therecorder/2020/07/24/new-study-finds-pfoa-is-carcinogenic-what-are-the-california-proposition-65-implications/?slreturn=20210717185853 

– New Study Finds PFOA Is Carcinogenic: What Are the California Proposition 65 Implications?

18] https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2017-12/documents/ffrrofactsheet_contaminants_pfos_pfoa_11-20-17_508_0.pdf 

  • Technical Fact Sheet –

Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS)

and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) 

  • The toxicity, mobility and bioaccumulation potential of PFOS and PFOA result in potential adverse effects on the environment and human health.
  • The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has classified PFOA as a Group A3 carcinogen – confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown relevance to humans (ATSDR 2015).
  • The World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that PFOA is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B) (IARC 2016). 
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2016. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volume 110. monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol110/inde x.php 

19] https://fscimage.fishersci.com/msds/50922.htm

  • Material Safety Data Sheet: Methyltrimethoxysilane
  • Ingestion: May cause irritation of the digestive tract. May be harmful if swallowed. Inhalation: May cause respiratory tract irritation. May be harmful if inhaled.

20] https://patents.justia.com/patent/20140186639 


21] https://www.hunker.com/12003693/dangers-of-ceramic-cookware 

  • Dangers Of Ceramic Cookware

22] https://nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/0928.pdf 


23] https://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/chris/FAS.pdf

  • FAS toxicity

24] https://www.aluminummanufacturers.org/aluminum-sulfate/ammonium-sulfate/ 

  • Ammonium sulfate
  • Ammonium sulfate is potentially dangerous to both people and the environment, so it requires care in its use. It can cause severe irritation and inflammation of the respiratory tract if inhaled. Eating or drinking ammonium sulfate will cause irritation in the gastrointestinal tract like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, although it isn’t toxic unless consumed in large quantities. Contact with the skin or eyes will cause irritation, redness, itching, and pain. It may also be a neurotoxin, meaning it can cause confusion and behavioral changes 

25] https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwiTj8e2mrnyAhUDB50JHaj3CtoQFnoECBMQAw&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bibra-information.co.uk%2Fdownloads%2Ftoxicity-profile-for-polydimethylsiloxane-1991%2F&usg=AOvVaw2D-e-QjsLiSDTNo215fank 

26] https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27871870/ 

  • Carcinogenic risk of emerging persistent organic pollutant perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS): A proposal of classification